Liners: Sealing the Deal
In an era of high metals prices and increasingly stringent environmental standards, mine operators want less leaks and longer life from their pad and pond liners
By Russell A. Carter, Managing Editor

Like so many other materials used in min-ing applications, the geosynthetic products used for lining heap leach pads, tailings storage empoundments and settling ponds often have to survive physical or chemical damage from all sides. Just as a plant process vessel can come under attack from abrasive contents on the inside as well as corrosive mist or fumes on the outside, ‘geo’ materials frequently must cope with sharp rock edges in the overlying material or under the liner, physical slippage due to slopes or ground movement—and age, to mention just a few threats. Liners are often expected to stand up not just to the rigors of mining, but possibly to many years of post-mining exposure as well. In many cases, a mine might only be active for 10 or 20 years, but its covered and lined pads and dumps may have life spans measured in centuries.

The selection of a proper liner or cover is complicated by the fact that each mine site is, in some way, unique. There are few cookie-cutter solutions available to the industry for almost any phase of mining and processing, and liner selection must take into account variables that range from local terrain characteristics, to the chemi-cal makeup of contained leach or waste solutions, to the level of oxidation resulting from exposure to sunlight or heat. The good news is that there is a wide and growing selection of geomembrane, geosynthetic, geocomposite, nonwoven geotextile and related products available from which to choose, and suppliers continue to advance materials technology and installation choic-es to provide higher levels of performance. For example, long-term tests conducted on HDPE (high-density polyethylene) geo-membranes, the most widely used liner material, exposed to various climatic condi-tions indicated that the material’s anti-oxidative ingredients were still active after three decades. New linear low-density poly-ethylene (LLDPE) geomembranes also offer better protection against stretching caused by weight loads or ground movement.

That’s welcome information to mine operators concerned about the loss of poten-tial revenue from seepage of metals-rich solutions through punctured liners, particu-larly during metal-price boom times. Studies of seepage in heap leach pads estimate that leakage levels for these types of applications can reach as high as 10,000 liters/hectare/ day. Add to that the growing emphasis on runoff control and acid mine drainage, plus increased regulatory and public attention to mine-closure plans and responsibilities, and the expanding importance of liner integrity comes into clearer focus.

Improving Liner Performance
E&MJ recently spoke with executives and engineers at GSE Lining Technology, which has supplied liner products since the early 1970s—about the same time that geosyn-thetic liners caught the attention of the mining industry. GSE manufactures geo-membranes, geosynthetic clay liners and drainage products to serve the global min-ing market. According to Ed Zimmel, GSE’s vice president of engineering, the mining industry has high stakes riding on geomembrane performance.

The rising importance of liner leak minimization has prompted geomembrane suppliers such as GSE Lining Technology to develop new products and techniques.
Shown here, left to right, are GSE’s new leak-location lining membrane (being tested); an illustration showing how the leak location liner and new mine drainage
net product are placed for a typical heap leach pad installation; and a closeup of the geocomposite drainage system itself.

Zimmel noted that the suppliers of resins used to manufacture geomembranes have continued to make significant improve-ments in their product—advancing catalyst technology and refining their process condi-tions, for example—that, in turn, allow geo-membrane suppliers to offer better-perform-ing products. In addition, the chemical additives that are included in geomembrane production recipes have improved, adding increased thermal stability and resistance to damage from UV radiation.

Mark Harris, GSE’s global mining market manager, added that although these im-provements seem somewhat basic, they’re of high importance to mine owners that have to plan for decades of post-mining care and maintenance and final closure of facilities. Liner longevity and integrity are key ele-ments in avoiding environmental incidents both during and after mining activities.

“We pursue product development very aggressively,” said Zimmel. “We try to get out in front of the engineers and mine own-ers by first asking them what they need in terms of product performance, and then developing liner products that meet those demands. We want to identify any product characteristics that may cause engineers to have to modify their site designs, and elim-inate those constraints.”

GSE recently introduced a line of High Performance LLDPE and HDPE geomem-branes that are designed to provide notice-ably better resistance to most of the chal-lenges faced by mine geomembrane instal-lations: i.e, higher resistance to stress cracking, increased anti-oxidation protec-tion that can result in longer field life, and enhanced capability to cope with differen-tial settlement stresses that can sometimes cause liners to stretch multi-axially by as much as 20%. This is a particularly useful characteristic for leach facilities located in seismically active areas.

The new geomembrane line, according to the company, is manufactured with two anti-oxidant chemical packages rather than a single all-purpose package common in most geomembrane ingredient lists; one package is aimed at preventing oxidation during the manufacturing process, the other at protection in the field. Another additive package protects against brittle-ness caused by aging.

In addition to the new High Performance geomembrane, GSE is introducing a syn-thetic drainage system that replaces the aggregate commonly used as a drainage layer on a typical leach pad. This system can result in better performance and lower costs for the project owner by eliminating the need to find, crush, or truck-in aggregates, as is the case at many pad facilities. The synthet-ic drainage system provides enhanced punc-ture protection for the liner system. Another new product in the GSE pipeline is a leak-location liner that can be tested for pinholes not only after installation, but after place-ment of the drainage system as well, conse-quently offering the prospect of preventing significant solution and mineral loss.

A Textured Approach
Liner installations can employ either smooth or textured geomembranes, de-pending on whether the site requires a higher frictional interface between the liner and the underlying surface or not. Agru America Western Regional Manager Clark West described one of the popular process-es used to produce textured geomem-branes in a presentation given at the 2011 annual meeting of SME. An embossed or structured texturing is created by extruding molten polyethylene between two precisely engineered rollers. A pattern on one or both rollers creates a corresponding pattern of spikes on the extruded sheet, he explained. There are several benefits offered by this approach, West noted: the base thickness of the material is not affected by the process, and the sheet surface remains smooth with the exception of the spikes. Tensile and strain properties are not degraded in the manufacturing, and the material is completely homogeneous.

Agru America supplies these textured geomembranes in several configurations, including Microspike, which offers a high frictional interface; and Grip Liner, with smaller spikes for lower friction. The com-pany’s Super Gripnet contains drain studs on the upper surface and spikes on the bot-tom surface—a useful configuration when the sheeting is applied on slopes, while its Micro Drain liner has studs on the top sur-face only, for use when applied over fabric or geosynthetic clay.

Because of past liner failures and expe-riences with poor post-mining performance, new options are being sought by engineering customers tasked with designing stable and environmentally sound solutions for waste rock dumps and leach pads, West ex-plained, and an exposed geosynthetic cover system developed by Agru America may pro-vide an answer. The system incorporates a textured geomembrane in combination with synthetic turf and a highly transmissive drainage layer above the membrane. The drainage component, locking infill ballast and internal friction angles allow for instal-lation of the cover on steep slopes that nor-mally would require significant angle reduc-tion. The system is claimed to provide rapid installation and superior environmental characteristics, resisting damage from hurri-cane force winds and intense rain events. Other advantages, according to West, are that it eliminates the need for borrow, reduces earthwork costs, fuel consumption and ongoing maintenance required by a veg-etative closure, (e.g., re-seeding, soil replacement, fertilizing and irrigation).

A typical geosynthetic clay liner, as shown here,
com-prises a layer of sodium bentonite granules or
powder sandwiched between woven/nonwoven
fabric sheets.

Composites to Control Leakage
Even the most well-designed geomembrane mine installation is likely to have some leaks due to imperfect seams or damage incurred during installation and loading phases, explained CETCO’s Chris Athanassopoulos in another presentation at the 2011 SME meeting. To control leakage through defects, a low-permeability layer can be used beneath the geomembrane to form a “composite” liner system. The low-permeability liner beneath a geomembrane is typically either compacted soil (clay or silt) or a geosynthet-ic clay liner (GCL). GCLs are factory-manu-factured products that employ sodium ben-tonite and have a laboratory-certified hydraulic conductivity of 5 x 10^-9 cm/sec.

Although many factors can affect the rate of leakage through composite systems, including the number of holes in the overly-ing geomembrane, the hydraulic conductiv-ity of the underlying soil layer and the qual-ity of contact between the geomembrane and the low-permeability layer, liner-leakage measurements collected by the U.S. EPA at almost 300 landfill cells, spanning 91 sites showed that GCL-based composite liner sys-tems allow less leakage than clay-based composite liner systems, he noted.

CETCO’s Bentomat GCL products offer the company’s Supergroove technology, consisting of a groove in the nonwoven fab-ric that allows the contained bentonite to migrate out and self-seam at the overlap. This feature, according to CETCO, eases the installation process by eliminating the need for supplemental bentonite.

Athanassopoulos said comparisons between installed costs of GCLs and com-pacted soil liners are problematic due to the highly variable, site-specific issues posed by each installation. However, his experi-ence, including a recent mine project in Nevada, has shown the installed cost of a GCL is roughly equivalent to or lower than the installed cost of a compacted soil liner when the soil is transported from an off-site location, or when soil amendments such as bentonite are required. GCLs often can be deployed faster than compacted low-per-meability soil liners can be constructed, and offer a better working surface for deploying and welding the overlying geomembrane. Additionally, GCLs are fac-tory-controlled materials, with consistent bentonite distribution and hydraulic per-formance. These advantages, said Athanas-sopoulos, suggest that GCLs may facilitate a shorter construction schedule and an ear-lier start to leaching operations.

As featured in Womp 2012 Vol 01 -